What is Prostate cancer
The prostate gland makes fluid that forms part of semen. The prostate lies just below the bladder in front of the rectum. It surrounds the urethra (the tube that carries urine and semen through the penis and out of the body).
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the United States, after skin cancer. It is the second leading cause of death from cancer in men. Prostate cancer occurs more often in African-American men than in white men. African-American men with prostate cancer are more likely to die from the disease than white men with prostate cancer.
Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Prostate cancer often has no early symptoms. Advanced prostate cancer can cause men to urinate more often or have a weaker flow of urine, but these symptoms can also be caused by benign prostate conditions.
Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly. Most men with prostate cancer are older than 65 years and do not die from the disease. Finding and treating prostate cancer before symptoms occur may not improve health or help you live longer. Talk to your doctor about your risk of prostate cancer and whether you need screening tests.
A Snapshot of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in the United States. It is estimated that, in 2014, 233,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in the United States, and nearly 29,500 men will die of the disease. African American men have a higher incidence rate than, and at least twice the mortality rate of, men of other racial/ethnic groups.
Prostate cancer incidence rates in the United States began to increase dramatically in the late 1980s with the widespread use of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to detect prostate cancer. Since the early 1990s, prostate cancer incidence has been declining. Mortality rates for prostate cancer also have declined since the mid-1990s.
Risk factors for prostate cancer include increasing age, African ancestry, and a family history of prostate cancer. Although PSA testing has been used widely for prostate cancer screening, most advisory groups now recommend against routine screening as more has been learned about the benefits and harms of PSA testing. Standard treatments for prostate cancer include watchful waiting or active surveillance, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and bisphosphonate therapy.
Assuming that incidence and survival rates follow recent trends, it is estimated that $13.0 billion1 will be spent on prostate cancer care in the United States in 2014.